In 2016 we first introduced the Effektri DBS test for animals. At first, the test was only available for a few veterinarians and together with them, we searched for a small but interesting control group to test as a subject for this white paper. In the meantime, we have a really good database of results in the EU and Canada and we will update this white paper soon with more results.

The Effektri Health Concept for animals consists of an Effektri dried blood spot test to identify potential diet related problems in the metabolism of fats, and the Effektri oil to restore and maintain optimal fat metabolism. Table 1 shows the 11 fatty acids (98 % of the fatty acids in the blood) that are measured by the Effektri dried blood spot test for animals. The focus of the test is on the essential polyunsaturated Omega-6 and Omega-3 fatty acids (8 of the 11 fatty acids measured), but also saturated- (C16:0, C18:0) and monounsaturated (C18:1) fatty acids are measured.

Table 1. Fatty acids measured in the Effektri Health Concept for Animals
Table 1. Fatty acids measured in the Effektri Health Concept for Animals

 

The composition of the 11 fatty acids jointly influence the flexibility of cell membranes, a condition that is essential for active, healthy animals. Flexible blood cell membranes are needed to bring blood to all parts of the animal body, since the diameter of a blood cell is comparable to the diameter of the smallest capillary blood vessels. Stiff blood cells may not penetratethecapillaries,andtheanimalmaynotgetthebloodtoallpartsneededforoptimal performance.

The Inflammatory climate influences both acute and chronic conditions. The inflammatory climate is characterized by the composition of polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids (>= 20 carbon atoms in the fatty acids chain) of the Omega-6 type (C20:3+C20:4)andOmega-3type (C20:5 + C22:5 + C22:6). These fatty acids are all measured by the Effektri dried blood spot test.

The Effektri Health Concept guidelines are consistent with the principle of  Safe Feed for Animals. The composition of Effektri oil does not induce changes in lipid peroxidation in the animal body, which might raise concern in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, as well as other chronic conditions. The oxidative stability of Effektri is secured by the combination of fish oil and a specially selected olive oil.

During inflammation, several cell types secrete phospholipase A2 that catalyzes lipid oxidation in bad cholesterol, the LDL particles in blood. Lipid oxidation results in the generation of aldehydes that substitute lysine residues in the apolipoprotein B-100 moiety. Lipid together with protein oxidation in bad LDL cholesterol results in the generation of the harmful oxidized LDL. A cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of olive oil polyphenols (standardized by the content of hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives) and protection of LDL particles from oxidative damage. This principle has been built into Effektri oil, a principle that also works to stabilize the oil against lipid peroxidation on the shelf, as seen in Figure1.

 

Figure 1. Oxidative stability of fish oil products protected by different antioxidants using the AOCS Official Method Cd12b-92.
Figure 1. Oxidative stability of fish oil products protected by different antioxidants using the AOCS Official Method Cd12b-92.

 

Participants – Dogs

In the study performed in 2016, Norwegian veterinarians collected blood from 24 dogs of 14 different breeds varying in age from 1 year to 10 year (Table 2). Fifteen of the dogs were not taking any omega-3 supplements, six of the dogs had recently starting taking Effektri, while 3 of the dogs were using other omega-3 supplements. The fatty acids composition of the blood was measured in all dogs (Table 1, Table 3) and the corresponding Omega-3 Index, Dietary- and Pro-inflammatory indicators were calculated.

 

Table 2. Characteristics of dogs participating in this study.
Table 2. Characteristics of dogs participating in this study.

 

Table 3. Fatty acids measurements of individual dogs.
Table 3. Fatty acids measurements of individual dogs.

 

The Omega-3 Index is the sum of the marine omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. The Omega-3 Index shows if the omega-3 supplement consumed by the dog is bioavailable in the blood, which is necessary for influencing the inflammatory climate. The Omega-3 Index should preferably be above 6%.

Table 4 and Figure 2 clearly shows that Omega-3 from Effektri is absorbed by the dogs and is bioavailable in the blood, while other Omega-3 supplements consumed by the dogs give the same Omega-3 Index as dogs not consuming any omega-3 supplements. The reason may be the use of oxidized fish oil, or to little fish oil. Some of the dogs not taking any food supplements (Shila, Pepsi, Soda and Edward) have Omega-3 Index values indicating that they have a diet containing fatty fish, maybe as fishmeal. The Omega-3 Index should preferably be above 6%. Thus, the dogs using Effektri should also increase their daily dosage as recommended later in this white paper.

 

Table 4. Bioavailability of Omega-3 from Effektri and other omega-3 supplements. The Omega-3 Index should preferably be above 6%.

 

Figure 2. Bioavailability of Omega-3 from Effektri (green), other omega-3 supplements (orange) and no indicated supplement (blue). The Omega-3 Index should preferably be above 6%.


Dietary Index
(Tot. Omega-6/Tot. Omega-3)

(C18:2 + C18:3 +C20:3+C20:4)/(C18:3 + C20:5 + C22:5 + C22:6)

The fatty acid composition of blood cell membranes is in equilibrium with the fatty acid composition of whole blood. In cell membranes saturated-(SAFA) and mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) provide stiffness due to the shape of these fatty acids, while polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) provide flexibility. Long chain omega-3 PUFA (LC- omega-3) and long chain omega-6 PUFA (LC- omega-6) are important structural components of cell membranes and contribute to various membrane functions such as fluidity, permeability, activity of membrane-bound enzymes and receptors, and signal transduction. The sources of LC-omega-3 and LC-omega-6 are essential and must be supplied through the diet.

A normal diet provides a surplus of LC-omega-6, SAFA and MUFA. These components shape the cell membrane functionality when LC-omega-3 is depleted. The food supplement Effektri provides LC-omega- 3 to a normal diet, increasing the LC-omega-3 in blood. Finding a new equilibrium with the fatty acid composition of the whole blood, many of the SAFA and MUFA in cell membranes will be substituted by LC-omega-3 making the cell membrane more flexible andfunctional.

Table 5 and Figure 3 show that Effektri added to the diet is effective in reducing the ratio between Tot. Omega-6 and Tot. Omega-3 in whole blood independent of races, providing flexibility and functionality to cell membranes.

Table 5. Calculating the Dietary Index from fatty acids composition of whole blood in dogs. The Omega-6/Omega-3 Ratio should preferably be below 5.

 

Figure 3. Dietary Index for individual dogs of different races taken from Table 5. Dogs that are taking Effektri oil are marked green, other omega-3 supplements (orange) and no indicated supplement (blue). The Omega-6/Omega-3 Ratio should preferably be below 5.

 

Pro-inflammatory index (% AA/% EPA)

Many dogs are afflicted with chronic lifestyle ailments such as problems of behavior, stomach problems, stiff muscles, respiratory system problems, itchy skin, joint problems, auto immune diseases, dietary allergies and obesity. Most of these problems are caused by chronic inflammation supported by poor eating, poor sleeping schedules, daily stress and more. Chronic inflammation is characterized by the imbalance between the ratios of anti- inflammatory versus pro-inflammatory eicosanoids. Eicosanoids are hormones, which in turn control other hormones and practically all have important functions in the body, e.g. the central nervous system and the immune system. Thus, they are very important for good health and well-being.

 

Table 6. Calculating the Pro-inflammatory Index from fatty acids composition of whole blood in dogs. The AA/EPA Ratio should preferably be below 3.

 

The key link between diet, inflammation and eicosanoids is that the pro-inflammatory eicosanoids are derived from Arachidonic acid (AA), an essential LC-omega-6 fatty acid originating from plants, and the anti-inflammatory eicosanoids that are generated from Eicosapentanoicacid(EPA), an essential LC-omega-3 fatty acid originating mainly from marine sources. Normal diets are often pro-inflammatory containing more Omega-6 than Omega-3, and should be balanced by increased intake of anti-inflammatory LC-omega-3. The AA/EPA Ratio in whole blood provides a picture of the pro-inflammatory status of the diet.

Table 6 and Figure 4 show that Effektri added to the diet is effective in reducing the AA/EPA Ratio in whole blood independent of races, thus reducing the dietary pro-inflammatory climate.

 

Figure 4. Pro-inflammatory Index for individual dogs of different races taken from Table 5. Dogs that are taking Effektri oil are marked green, other omega-3 supplements (orange) and no indicated supplement (blue). The AA/EPA Ratio should preferably be below 3.
Figure 4. Pro-inflammatory Index for individual dogs of different races taken from Table 5. Dogs that are taking Effektri oil are marked green, other omega-3 supplements (orange) and no indicated supplement (blue). The AA/EPA Ratio should preferably be below 3.


Recommendations

When using Effektri oil to reduce, to restore or to maintain the dietary and pro-inflammatory indicators of fat metabolism, we need some extra information to be able to provide a correct recommendation for each dog. Thus, the dog owner, when retrieving the fatty acids analysis result by introducing his personal code onto our site will be requested to fill in an online questionnaire providing information about the Dog name, Race, Gender, Age, Weight, Condition, Exercise level and Known chronic lifestyle ailments (see Appendix 1).

To reduce, restore or maintain the dietary and pro-inflammatory indicators of fat metabolism, our Effektri oil recommendation is primarily based on the body weight of the dog, adjusted for 1) Exercise level, 2) Condition, 3) Known chronic lifestyle ailments, 4) Dietary indicator result and 5) Pro-inflammatory indicatorresult.

A basic daily intake of Effektri oil of 0.15 ml oil per kg body weight (= 3.8 ml for a 25 kg dog), provides 0.03 g LC-Omega-3 (EPA+DHA) per kg body weight from fish oil (= 0.75 g LC-Omega- 3 for a 25 kg dog). The LC-Omega-3 is protected by 0.06 mg polyphenols from olive oil per kg body weight (= 1.5 mg polyphenols for a 25 kg dog).

Table 7 provides the ml Effektri oil recommendations for each of the 20 dogs in our example. After treatment as recommended for 120 days, a new test may indicate improvements that may lead to reduced recommended daily maintenance intake of Effektri for life.

 

Table 7. Calculating Effektri Health Concept recommendations for individual dogs.

 

Conclusion

Effektri oil is effective in reducing the dietary indicator in whole blood independent of race, providing flexibility and functionality to cell membranes. It is effective in reducing the pro-inflammatory indicator in whole blood independent of race, thus reducing the dietary pro-inflammatoryclimate. Dogs with reported known chronic lifestyle ailments have elevated dietary- and pro- inflammatory indicators in whole blood before they start using Effektri.

 

References

SINTEF – Fisheries and Aquaculture – August 2010. Oil stability index, AOCS Official Method Cd12b-92, average of 3 analysis at 70°C

The scientific opinion of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) scientific panel. Protection of blood lipids from oxidative stress. EFSA Journal2011;9(4):2033)

George E. Billman, Jing X. Kang and Alexander Leaf, 1999. Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death by Dietary Pure omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Dogs. Circulation, 1999;99:2452-2457

C.E. Lenox and J.E. Bauer. 2013. Potential Adverse Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Dogs and Cats. J Vet Intern Med 2013;27:217–226.